Naturopathic Philosophy & Viruses
As Naturopaths we believe that it is not so much about the germ (or the virus in this case) but about the host. We are taught that the key to resistance is to support the body so that it can use it’s own innate intelligence to come back to balance and heal from DIS-‘EASE’. Given that this novel Coronavirus is behaving very abnormally, we may need to change our point of view once we have time to review the evidence. But, in addition to the measures already being employed such as social distancing, hand washing and isolation you may be asking:
What else can we do?
We may have heard “there is nothing you can do to support your immunity“. Have you heard that? The truth is that we still don’t know enough about this virus and how it operates. I am sharing cutting edge information below about what we DO KNOW. But at the end of the day, we all want to be able to keep as healthy as we can. That really goes without saying.
So this blog is not about preventing Covid-19 but it is about staying healthy and what we KNOW about how to do that. PLUS I am going to talk about herbal support for colds, influenza & Covid-19 at home care.
I have spoken before about this in earlier posts but just for a reminder here are:
MY TOP 4 Immune Supportive Nutrients & Herbs
Vitamin C – I recommend taking around 1000 mg of Liposomal or Ascorbic Acid once a day. But remember that you only absorb about 17% of Ascorbic Acid compared to Liposomal Vitamin C which may be absorbed up to 95%. Pretty neat huh? And that’s why Liposomal will often be superior as you just absorb more.
Zinc – I will bang on till the cows come home about Zinc. Our soil in Australia is often deficient in this crucial mineral. It is absolutely vital for our immune system to work, to modulate, for our skin/gut/mood. The RDA is 15 mg but the studies show that you may need up to 30 or even 50 mg a day. Especially if you have Pyrrole Disorder. But lets start with about 25 mg of zinc bysglycinate or citrate shall we?
Medicinal mushrooms like Reishi, Shiitake or Cordyceps can be added to a warm drink in the morning and have a huge amount of evidence for their immune supporting, modulating & stimulating properties (if you need the research just let me know as I ran out of room below). They have been studied for cancer support and their effect on natural killer cell activity among many other things and have been in use in China for thousands of years. I love these products here.
Vitamin D or Sunlight each day, if you don’t believe me read this about Vitamin D and the flu (more recent research is coming in about it’s relationship with Covid-19 – I will be writing more about this next) and look at the references below (4,5,6,7,8,9) which all link morbidity, mortality and severity of Covid-19 to Vitamin D insufficiency.
Vitamin D from sunshine is free and regular exposure for 20 minutes a day this time of year will provide about 1000 IU for people living in mid-latitudes who expose about 30% of their body surface. Vitamin D is available to almost everyone, even the poorest and recently unemployed. Populations that can’t get outside easily (the elderly, prison populations, indoor workers) may need Vitamin D supplements to achieve sufficient blood levels. We should work towards testing Vitamin D levels in those populations to ensure that they are sufficient. (9)
A small percentage of people who develop Covid-19 symptoms will develop shortness of breath and pneumonia which can then trigger multi-organ and systemic sepsis or septic shock. What we know is that those with immune insufficiency, the immuno-compromised, the elderly, those with co-existent disease like cardiovascular disease (and on various ACE inhibitors and other drugs i spoke about here) may be at more risk. Other information trickling down is that those who are obese, Vitamin D deficient and live in areas with high air pollution are also at risk (references below). I found these numbers astounding: those with Vitamin D deficiency may be up to 20 x more likely to die from Covid-19 (4,5,6). Also, those with poorly controlled blood sugar levels who are diabetic and those who are low in selenium may fare worse from Covid-19 (13,14,15). This backs up a set of interesting studies published by the Beck laboratory in the 1990’s showed that host selenium deficiency increased the virulence of RNA viruses such as coxsackievirus B3 and influenza A (15) and confirms what was mentioned above.
And of course lets not forget our original idea…
” Host nutritional status … the neglected virulence factor ” (17)
COVID-19 STAGES what we know so far…
In the first stage you may have the following: Fever, dry cough, sore throat, fatigue, headache, chest tightness, nausea, loss of taste and smell.
Herbalists in the USA who are treating many patients suffering at home recommend drinking warming herbs/teas/spices like chai and honey: use cloves, ginger, garlic, cinnamon, cayenne. According to Buhner (10) Fresh Ginger Juice is an option: Juice 1-2 pounds of ginger (0.5-1kg) and press pulp and refrigerate: pour ¼ cup into a mug and add a ¼ lime squeezed, 1 tbsp honey, ½ cup of hot water and stir well and drink 2-6 cups a day. You can also use Elderberry syrup instead which the kids may like more! You could have it in warm water as a tea or have it straight: if you have ever done that you know it is warming to the throat and chest.
There are Immune and lung herbs which are specific to this stage. The first and most famous is Echinacea which is an antiviral but must meet the throat (you need to swallow the liquid it so it can) and has been found active against HIV, H5N1, H7N7 and H1N1 swine origin. Goldenseal will have similar actions, and must be taken at the first signs mentioned above.
The Damp Plague
The first stage has been referred to as the Damp Plague by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners in China who have been using TCM to treat patients in hospital and at home. Because the first symptom is fever and because we do not believe that fever is something to be repressed herbalists believe in supporting the bodies’ response by improving the action of the fever. Fever is widely known to increase our immune response in order to fight off a virus. In fact, the herbs that are recommended for this first stage include any that are warming: Lomatium, Eupatorium, Elderberry, Nigella, Ginger, Yarrow, Cinnamon, Cayenne, Yarrow, Garlic, Green Tea, Propolis, Cat’s Claw, Mullein (common names used: Latin names below).
Many of these herbs are diaphoretic which means they support your body’s response to fever.
IMPORTANT NOTE: Be careful with high fevers (over 39 C) in children especially. Contact your doctor if you are concerned and only use herbs under the guidance of a trained herbalist or Naturopath.
Matthew Wood an American Herbalist says that Elderflower opens the skin which will help with fever and so will Nigella and Thyme (15). Opening the skin and the bowels will allow any build up of fluids that occurs in stage 1 to be eliminated. So, improving any constipation is vital. Warming spices will help warm the inner ‘Damp Plague’. Patients in China and America including doctors working with the sick have also noticed a thick white coating on the tongue with decreased expectoration, so keep an eye out for this. This could also be a first sign along with an absence in taste and smell which anecdotally I have heard is common.
The herb specific to this build-up of phlegm with no cough is Eupatorium or Boneset. Goldenseal is also effective at removing dampness and heat.
Fenugreek is another herb which is widely available in seed form which can be used as a warm decoction for deeper lung issues or tea for more upper respiratory and sinus congestion. It helps in warming which we need in this first stage, to loosen and expel mucus and excess phlegm. David Osborne talks about Fenugreek here. Another herb which can be also used in the last stage as it is nutritive and helpful for convalescence. Where there is an infection consider Fenugreek tea with Thyme. With pneumonia it was traditionally used in a poultice with mustard seeds to support the lungs and clear harder thicker congestion.
Holly is the Bach Flower essence for this stage as there may be a lot of fear in this stage. You could use the Australian Bush Flower Emergency Essence and consider other essences like Angelsword, Crowea, Dog Rose of the Wild Forces, Fringed Violet, Grey Spider Flower, Sundew and Waratah.
From Matthew Wood ” People look at viruses in terms of killing them but in holistic medicine we look at changing the environment so the stronger body can resist. We believe it’s not the ‘germ’ it’s the host. Our bodies first line of defence is the epithelial barrier of the skin or mucosa (the mucous membranes of our mouth, throat and gut). Anything that strengthens this helps resistance, slowing viral multiplication and in turn strengthens the tissues. Vitamin C also does this. The next is the thermoregulatory system which opens and closes the pores in the intrinsic epithelial barrier. This brings blood to the surface, opens and closes sweat pores to pour out heat (or preserve it in winter). The herbal theory is to warm the center, thin the fluids/mucus, preserve the circulation to the surface and keep the pores open.”
This stage usually managed at home if the symptoms are mild, is often characterised by persistent chill & heat, cough with some yellow phlegm, bloating/constipation, shortness or breath (SOB), coughing. Traditional YEP (yarrow elder and peppermint) tea may be useful here or as a tincture. We stock this in our clinic online store here.
A note about Yarrow: Yarrow is a traditional part of YEP tea: Yarrow, Elder and Peppermint for common influenza. It is both diaphoretic, cooling and pain relieving. Peppermint is cooling (the opposite effect to what we want in stage 1) while Elder opens the pores to allow heat to escape while also supporting innate immunity.
Lomatium dissecta is another herb to consider: known by the American Indians as Bear Root will warm the center, thin mucus and improve circulation. It was the great remedy of 1918: report from Ernest T Krebs MD during the 1918 flu epidemic entitled “Indian remedy for influenza”
During the fall of 1918 when the influenza epidemic visited this section of Nevada , the Washoe Indians used a root in the treatment of their sick … (a modern equivalent of the amount they used (1 pound per case) would be 5-25 drops of the tincture) … there was not a single death in the Washoe tribe from influenza or its complications, although Indians living in other parts of the State where the root did not grow died in large numbers. It was such a remarkable coincidence that it was investigated by a practicing physician who said… “Apparently hopeless cases recover without any other treatment than this herb. A preparation was prepared and employed among the cases in the white population in mild to more severe cases of influenza and it proved to be effective. When used early it was useful in preventing pulmonary complications. Its action on coughs was more effective than opiate expectorants and its benefits lasting. It seems to stimulate the vagus nerve and causes a a slow pulse with increased volume and reduced tension. It is a pronounced diaphoretic (supports a fever) and somewhat diuretic, a stimulating and sedative expectorant.”
It is to be noted that Angelica archagelica is the closest common relative to Lomatium. It was also used for epidemics in Europe in ancient times and was used as protection on the chest against contagion in almost every indigenous society where it grows. It is often used in fire cider with bayberry, horseradish, cayenne etc…to increase circulation to the head, upper respiratory tract, nose and to increase WBC and immunity. I would use this in the first stage but also Stage 4: at the end of a bad influenza, pneumonia or bronchitis to when a person is worn out, damp, swollen under the eyes. I would use Yarrow if I did not have either of these.” Matthew Wood (15)
Onion Poultice is something to consider especially if you cannot get hold of any of the above herbs. We have an interesting video from someone in the UK who was suffering from Covid-19 and was told to stay at home and used a simple onion poultice. Remember to always first get medical advice if you have trouble breathing. Email us if you want a copy.
Stage 3: May be a severe illness
May need hospitalization if severe
Symptoms: Dyspnea (extreme SOB), fainting, cyanosis, cold & sweaty
CAC (Covid Associated Coagulopathy) is emerging as a key process in severe COVID-19. The American Society of Hematology recommends routine DVT prophylaxis for all admitted COVID-19 patients.13 In Wuhan, CAC was present in 71.4% of non-survivors vs. 0.6% in survivors.(11, continued at the bottom)
It is thought that Vitamin D may exert an anti-coagulant effect and that sufficient Vitamin D may be crucial to avoid hospital admissions. It may also help you avoid a ‘deranged immune response’ to Covid-19 and avoid the initial inflammatory response that is so dangerous.
The massive influx of macrophages and T cells into peripheral organs during Covid-19, including the Central Nervous System (CNS) may represent the mechanism by which lymphocytopenia arises and could suggest an autoimmune component to the disease. The concept that COVID-19 may impact the CNS is supported by reports of loss of smell and taste by patients and the elevated incidence of ischemic stroke.
Another thing to consider in this stage…
THE CYTOKINE STORM
I made a note at the end of my blog last week regarding Elderberry and the Cytokine storm that i want to address in more detail here… sorry about the confusion!
One small study done on Elderberry in 2002 ‘in vitro’ meaning in a test-tube not an mouse or human study showed that there were moderate increases in both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The results of another study however showed Elderberry’s modulatory effect. An in vitro study in 2019 found that Elderberry has anti-inflammatory potential based on the reduction of both inflammatory cytokines, expression of NF-kB and the up-regulation of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory mediator. In order to understand more about this read on.
Cytokines are signaling molecules produced in great numbers during infections. They are produced in order to respond to injury, viruses or bacteria. You can think of them as inflammatory molecules. It is why when you cut yourself the cytokines rushing to the area causes the wound to get tender and swell. Once inhaled, influenza viruses begin attaching to lung cells by using a substance called hemagglutinin (an ‘agglutinin’ – like “glue”) to bind to surfaces of airway cells. This is how plants like Chinese skullcap and Ginger may stop influenza infections as they are HEMAGGLUTININ INHIBITORS. All viruses do this in their own way.
(NOTE THE HERBS IN BOLD BELOW THAT INTERFERE WITH VIRAL REPLICATION AND MAY BE INDICATED FOR CYTOKINE STORM)
As soon as a virus ‘docks’ it alters the permeability of the cell wall so it can enter in order to “HIDE” from the immune system. It uses an enzyme to do this: usually neuraminidase which breaks the bridges on the surface (this is how Tamiflu works as it inhibits neuraminidase: stopping the virus entering the cell) The herbs that may also do this are Elder, Skullcap, Licorice, Isatis, Angelica, Quercetin, Rhodiola and Ginger as they are ALL neuraminidase inhibitors. Neuraminidase inhibitors are effective against Influenza A and B strains.
To get into the cell the virus uses hemagluttinin to bind itself inside a little bubble called a vacuole where it also opens a little pore to the inside of the cell with a M2 ion channel. If you use an M2 inhibitor it will stop the virus from being able to replicate. Lomatium spoken about above in stage 2, is a herb which can do this and is considered stronger than the pharmaceutical amantadine. Use of the M2 channel is specific to the Influenza A virus but because of the extensive use of chemical M2 blockers like amantadine in poultry farms there is now almost complete resistance to them in all Influenza A strains: so you can’t use them anymore unfortunately. This is another reason why herbal medicine should be supported for a possible role when other medications become defunct due to overuse or drug resistance.
Anyway, once the pore is open the virus dissembles itself and releases its RNA into the cell. Again, Skullcap can inhibit this. The viral RNA is formed into a complex which is taken into the cells nucleus (center) where the cell is stimulated to make copies of the viral RNA (each slightly different), then other viral components like hemmaglutinin and neuroamindase is combined with it to assemble new viruses. Which are then released. The cell then dies and the virus moves on.
The lung cells at the end of our bronchioles are specific places this occurs, the viruses breed and can cause extreme inflammation, or swelling with fluid build up. The infected cells burst when they die and breathing becomes more difficult. The infected person is not able to get enough oxygen in through these infected and swollen cells and has less energy and may need supplemental oxygen in hospital. Pneumonia (remember Covid-19 is thought to be like a viral pneumonia) is when this process becomes severe, the sacs fill with increasing amounts of fluid while there are fewer functioning air sacs/alveoli. During this stage the virus is also stimulating cytokines to be released to allow viral particles to move more freely and suppress parts of the immune system that can kill the viruses for as long as possible.
The virus will stimulate cytokines that that reduce interferon production (Licorice may help here) and will reduce the response rates of T and B cells which increase influenza severity (Licorice, Zinc and Red Root are specific to bypass this). Interferon-gamma is a type of interferon which is crucial in the cytokine over-inflammation that occurs during severe influenza. By stimulating interferon-gamma, the virus initiates a positive feedback loop that can lead to CYTOKINE STORMS.
A Cytokine Storm is when the reaction to a virus can overcome the immune and lymph system to cause a drastic increase in inflammation and fluid which slows drainage and can damage lung tissue.
Herbs that help lymphatic drainage are vital here: Pleurisy root is one to use and I also use **NAC for lung support here. In fact it is in our Immune Support Pack (NAC is explained more further down).
TNF-alpha and Interferon Gamma are among the most responsible for most of the negative effects of the cytokine cascade. Mice who are unable to produce TNF-alpha consistently show decreased mortality and less symptoms even if exposed to the virulent 1918 Spanish Flu. Herbs that are specific for inhibiting TNF-Alpha are Kudzu, Chinese skullcap, Elder, Ginger, Houttuynia, Licorice, Boneset and Corydceps. And Licorice is a interferon modulator: which means it may inhibit inteferon production when levels are high and stimulate its production when it is low.
There are other plants that may help to reduce the other main cytokines that a virus can stimulate: and they may also help lessen disease severity and prevent lung damage: For NF-K8: Ginger, Chinese skullcap, Houttuyunia, Kudzu, Licorice, Boneset, Astragalus, Cordyceps, Lions Mane, Magnolia, Peonia, Ginkgo ( I am using common names here: Proper Latin Names are listed at the end) Each influenza will have a different cytokine profile however with slightly different cytokines presented.
A particular cytokine-like protein has been implicated in sepsis-induced cytokine storms: high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and has been found to be elevated in all patients who die from sepsis and hangs around for a very long time (18+ hours compared to the 90 minutes of other cytokines). When released in lung tissues it can cause acute lung injury. To date, anti-virals, antibiotics, high dose NSAIDS and corticosteroids have all been found ineffective BUT some herbs do have direct suppressive actions: For instance Angelica sinensis and Salvia miltiorrhiza are two. Licorice constituent glycyrrhizin directly binds HMGB1 inactivating it. So does Green tea (EGCG) and Quercetin as does Nicotine (counterintuitively!)
Buhner believes these herbs should be considered in a hospital setting as we know that by the 2009-2010 season a 28% resistance to amantadine was found (up from 0.06% resistance in 2007-2008!!). Research in late 2009 also began finding strains resistant to the other major neuraminidase inhibitor: zanamivir. This is often due to overuse in agribusiness.
And Finally NAC**
Preliminary research in lung cells infected with Influenza A virus strains has made some exciting discoveries. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the acetylated form of the amino acid cysteine, was shown to inhibit the replication of Influenza A viruses. This is welcome news after medical authorities have labelled last year (2019) in Australia, as being the worst flu outbreak on record. More than 70,000 cases of flu were reported including a record-breaking 30,000 cases in July. This was despite the high uptake of influenza vaccination.
Many people were also admitted to hospital suffering complications arising from the seasonal flu, and these include pneumonia, lymphopenia and hyper-induction of cytokines and chemokines. I have explained in detail above about this but one study looked at the effects of NAC on virus replication, virus-induced apoptosis (the death of a body cell) and the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules and found that NAC reduced the titres of influenza A virus strains in a concentration-dependent manner. Also treatment of H5N1-infected cells with NAC almost completely suppressed H5N1-induced cytopathogenic effects (1). Amazing result right?
So do you get the idea now?
There are so many ways you can support your health in a complementary way with herbal and nutritional medicine so please reach out if you need support!
Most of the herbs discussed above I keep in my dispensary and can be mixed after a short consultation. You can even buy online here.
Please share this article if you can. I feel so strongly that we need to support our health naturally and knowledge is power!
Next week i will be discussing STAGE 4 or CONVALESCENCE, what you do AFTER you have been unwell in order to recover your vitality again. This stage may involve shortness of breath (SOB), fatigue, anorexia, nausea and weakness. It is important for our long term health that we support our recovery in this stage so join me next week for our final part of this blog!
Stay Well !
Fin Mackenzie – Naturopath & Herbalist
BHSc(CompMed), ADNat, DNut, DRM, MATMS
- Geiler J, Michaelis M, Naczk P, et al. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) inhibits virus replication and expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in A549 cells infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;79(3):413-420. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2009.08.025.
- Vitamin D supplementation could possibly improve clinical outcomes of patients infected with Coronavirus-2019 (COVID2019) Mark M. Alipio April 9, 2020 https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=716097073084074002113112067098117004042021055002019085109020124093009000126104007018021054116024117056041071108019109100084065055058046000054087097104066082115116126093026076124064083013125127102090071089117000125026123095109031108072025106069075105017&EXT=pdf
- Patterns of COVID-19 Mortality and Vitamin D: An Indonesian Study: Prabowo Raharusuna*, Sadiah Priambada, Cahni Budiarti, Erdie Agung, Cipta Budi. April 26 2020.https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=837117025099125122117079017071003074024059064003040000112083024123092111026117088098001032035121109009039026094116072084070004052020064038083113090123087110066067065019092042003088002025001126120122088114115065100000072099093126003006006100001010078068&EXT=pdf KEY FINDINGS:
• Majority of the COVID-19 cases with insufficient and
deficient Vitamin D status died.
• The odds of death was higher in older and male cases with
pre-existing condition and below normal Vitamin D levels.
• When controlling for age, sex, and comorbidity, Vitamin D
status is strongly associated with COVID-19 mortality.
• Randomized controlled trials are warranted to investigate
the role of vitamin D supplementation on COVID-19 outcomes
and to establish the underlying mechanisms.
- Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent in severe COVID-19 Frank H. Lau, MD, FACS1, Rinku Majumder, PhD2, Radbeh Torabi, MD1 , Fouad Saeg, BS3 , Ryan Hoffman, BS4 , Jeffrey D. Cirillo, PhD5 , Patrick Greiffenstein, MD, FACS1, April 24th 2020.https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.24.20075838v1.full.pdf
- 10 Clinical Trials studying Vitamin D and Covid-19: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=COVID&term=%22vitamin+d%22&cntry=&state=&city=&dist=
- Buhner, Steven Harold, Herbal Antivirals Natural Remedies for emerging resistant and epidemic viral infections. Storey Publishing USA 2013
- https://www.hematology.org/covid-19/covid-19-and-coagulopathy Non-survivors demonstrated significantly lower fibrinogen and antithrombin levels on admission, consistent with coagulation factor depletion induced by a hypercoagulable state. A meta-analysis of 1,779 COVID-19 patients reported that platelet counts were significantly lower in severe COVID-19, and that lower platelet counts were associated with mortality.15 Anticoagulation can lower mortality: in patients with high SIC scores or D-dimer levels >6-fold the upper limit of normal, heparin reduced mortality to 40.0% vs. 64.2% in controls.16 CAC’s role is further evidenced by the multiorgan, microvascular clots in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, which include deep vein
thromboses/pulmonary emboli, acute renal failure, cerebrovascular events, myocardial injury, ischemic stroke, and ischemic skin changes.4 Microthromboses are found in extrapulmonary organs at a rate greater than in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), another novel coronavirus.17
- Zhu, L., She, Z.-G., Cheng, X., Qin, J.-J., Zhang, X.-J., Cai, J., … Li, H. (2020). Association of Blood Glucose Control and Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19 and Pre-existing Type 2 Diabetes. Cell Metabolism, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.04.021
- Zhang, J., Will, E. T., Bennett, K., Saad, R., & Rayman, M. P. (2020). Association between regional selenium status and reported outcome of COVID-19 cases in China. Am J Clin Nutr, 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa095/5826147
- Matthew Wood: https://www.matthewwoodinstituteofherbalism.com/courses/freebies. Coronavirus (Covid-19) symptoms and herbal discussion.
16. Hoffmann PR, Berry MJ. The influence of selenium on immune responses. Mol Nutr Food Res 2008: 52: 1273–80
20. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibit mucin synthesis and pro-inflammatory mediators in alveolar type II epithelial cells infected with influenza virus A and B and with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Biochem Pharmacol. 2011 Sep 1;82(5):548-55. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2011.05.014. Epub 2011 May 25.PMID: 21635874
21. Barak V, Birkenfeld S, Halperin T, Kalickman I. The effect of herbal remedies on the production of human inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Isr Med Assoc J. 2002 Nov;4(11 Suppl):919-22.
22. Carneiro NV, Silva HB, Silva RR, Carneiro TC, Costa RS, Pires AO, Marques CR, Velozo ES, Conceicao AS, Silva T, Silva TM. Sambucus australis Modulates Inflammatory Response via Inhibition of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-kB) in vitro. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2019;91(1).
Angelica – Angelica sinensis
Astragalus – Astragalus membranaceus
Bear Root – Lomatium dissecta
Boneset – Eupatorium perfoliatum
Cats Claw – Uncaria tomentosa
Cinnamon – Cinnamomum verum
Cordyceps – Cordyceps sinensis
Elderflower/Elderberry – Sambucus nigra (flower/berry)
Garlic – Allium sativum
Houttuynia – Houttuynia cordata
Isatis/Woad – Isatis tinctoria
Ginger -Zingiber officinale
Gingko – Gingko biloba
Green Tea – Camelia sinensis
Kudzu – Pueraria lobata
Licorice – Glycyrrhiza glabra
Lions Mane – Hericium erinaceus
Lomatium – Lomatium dissectum
Magnolia – Magnolia officinalis
Mullein – Verbascum thapsus
Nigella – Nigella sativa
Peonia – Paeonia Lactiflora
Rhodiola – Rhodiola rosea
Peppermint – Mentha piperita
Sage – Salvia miltiorrhiza
Skullcap – Scutellaria baicalensis
Yarrow – Achilliea millefolium